Parashat Mishpatim: Lessons on Justice and Ethics


Parashat Mishpatim, the sixth weekly Torah portion in the book of Exodus, is a pivotal section of the Torah that contains many important lessons on justice, ethics, and human conduct. It presents a set of laws and commandments that regulate various aspects of Jewish life, including slavery, theft, assault, and property damage, among others. Despite its seemingly specific and detailed content, Parashat Mishpatim offers valuable insights into universal moral principles that can guide us in our everyday lives.

Justice and Compassion

One of the main themes of Parashat Mishpatim is the importance of justice and compassion. The text emphasizes that the legal system should treat all people equally, regardless of their social status, wealth, or power. The Torah says: “You shall not favor the poor or show deference to the rich; with justice shall you judge your fellow” (Exodus 23:3). This commandment highlights the idea that justice must be blind and impartial, and that all people should have equal access to legal protection and representation.

Responsibility and Accountability

Another key lesson of Parashat Mishpatim is the principle of responsibility and accountability. The Torah teaches that we are responsible for our actions and must take responsibility for the harm we cause to others. For example, if someone’s livestock damages another person’s property, the owner must compensate the victim for the loss (Exodus 21:33-36). Similarly, if someone injures another person, they must pay for the victim’s medical expenses and lost wages (Exodus 21:18-19). These laws emphasize the importance of taking responsibility for our actions and making amends for any harm we cause to others.

Ethical Treatment of Others

Parashat Mishpatim also stresses the ethical treatment of others, including strangers, widows, orphans, and the poor. The Torah commands us to “not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt” (Exodus 22:20). This commandment reminds us of the Jewish people’s experience as slaves in Egypt and the importance of showing compassion and kindness to those who are vulnerable and marginalized. The Torah also teaches us to “not mistreat any widow or orphan” (Exodus 22:21) and to “not take advantage of a poor or destitute person” (Exodus 22:24). These laws underscore the idea that we have a moral obligation to protect and assist those who are in need and to treat all people with dignity and respect.


Parashat Mishpatim provides important guidance on how to live a just, ethical, and compassionate life. Its teachings remind us of the fundamental principles of responsibility, accountability, and ethical treatment of others that can guide our actions in all aspects of our lives. By studying and internalizing these principles, we can deepen our understanding of the Torah’s wisdom and apply it to our modern-day challenges and opportunities.